Unit study guide




Electrochemical


Electrochemical cell- using a porous barrier to separate the reactants, electrons being exchanged between ions are forced to travel through a connecting wire, producing electricity.

Voltaic cell-is an electrochemical cell in which a spontaneous redox reaction produces a flow of electrons through an external circuit.

Redox-

Circuit- a closed loop path for current to flow

Anode- the source of the electrons, it is the electrode at which oxidation occurs as electrons are lost by a substance.

Cathode- accepts the electrons it is the electrode at which reduction occurs as electrons are gained by a substance.

Oxidation- any element that loses electrons has undergone oxidation. Take place at the anode

Reduction- element gains electrons has undergone reduction, takes place in Cathode

Redox reaction- reaction in which electrons are gained or lost in equal numbers is a redox reaction

Reduction potential- amount of electric energy that can be generated by each half-reaction is determined by its reduction potential. The potential of the electrode at which reduction occurs.

Standard Reduction Potential-

Oxidation Number- numerical representation of an atoms share of the bonding electrons. Changes in oxidation #’s indicate a redox reaction.

Electrolysis- process in which electric energy is used to drive a redox reaction

Electrolytic cell- container in which electric energy drives a non-spontaneous redox reaction.

Know all key terms

Units
Coulombs - C
Farads- F its a unit of capacitance
Ohms- Ω unit of electrical resistance
Joules- J unit measuring electricity
Current- A for ampere
Resistance-
Electric field intensity-E


Formulas


Force between two charges
F=k Q1 Q2 / d^2

k=8.987*10^9 Nm^2/C^2 vacuum
k=8.93*10^9 Nm^2/C^2 in air

Force(F)=Newtons (N)
Charge(Q)=Coulombs (C)
Distance(d)=meters (m)

Current, given V & R
V=IR

Voltage(V)=Volts (V)
Current(I)=Amps (A)
Resistance(R)=Ohms (Ω)

REARRANGED: R= V / I

Capacitance
C=Q/V

Capacitance(C) = Farads(F)
Charge(Q) = Coulombs(C)
Potential Difference(V) = Volts(V)

Farad Conversion
1 μF=10^-6 F
1 pF=10^-12F

Power
P=VI

P=Power (watts, W)
V=Voltage (volts, V)
I= Current (amps, A)

P=I^2 R

P=Power (watts, W)
I= Current (amps, A)
R=Resistance (ohms, Ω)


Resistance
R= ρ (L / A)

R= Resistance (Ohms, Ω)
ρ= Resistivity (depends on the material composing the wire and its temperature, usually given or in chart)
L= Length (centimeters, cm)
A= Cross sectional area (centimeters^2, cm^2)

REARRANGED: ρ= RA / L









Know the parts of a voltaic cell

Wikipedia entry on Galvanic cells

Know how to identify and balance a redox reaction

Balancing Redox reactions from physchem.co.za



Electronics


Key Terms


electrification- The process that produces electric changes on an object.
static electricity- stationary electricity in the form of an electric charge at rest.
electroscope- device used to observe the presence of an electrostatic charge.
basic law of electrostatics- objects that are similarly charged repel each other; objects that are oppositely charged and attract each other.
proof plane- small metal disk with an insulating handle, used to test or transfer charges.
conductor- material through which an electric charge is readily transferred.
insulator- material through which an electric charge is not readily transferred.
residual charge- charge of the same sign as that of the body touching it acquired by any conducting object that is properly insulated and charged by conduction.
point charge- charge on object consider
Coulomb's law of electrostatics- the force between two point charges directly proportional to the product of their magnitudes and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.
electric field- said to exist in a region of space if an electric charge placed in that region is subject to an electric force.
line of force- is a line so drawn that a tangent to it at any point indicates the orientation of the electric field at that point.
intensity- or strength of an electrostatic field. the electric field intensity is proportional to the number of lines of force per unit area normal to the field.
electric field intensity- E, at any point in an electric field is the force per unit positive charge at that point.

What Is A Thermistor?
A thermistor is a typed of resistor with resistance varying according to its temperature.

What Is A MOSFET?
The metal–oxide–semiconductor field-effect transistor is a device used to amplify or switch electronic signals. It is by far the most common field-effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits.


Light



Chapter 12


5 properties of light
Corpuscular Theory
Wave Theory
Electromagnetic Theory
Quantum Theory
Laws of photoelectric emission
LASER
Speed of light

Chapter 13


Regular vs. diffused reflection
Types of mirrors
Images from mirrors – real vs. virtual
Ray diagrams for curved and plane mirrors
Object-image relationships (mirror equations)
Reflectance
Aperture

Chapter 14


Optical refraction
Optical density
Magnification
Index of refraction
Laws of refraction
Critical angle
Types of lenses
Ray diagrams for lenses
Images by refraction
Spherical aberration
Dispersion
Monochromatic vs. polychromatic light
Color
Color of objects and light
Complementary colors
Primary colors
Mixing pigments
Chromatic aberration

Chapter 15


Interference
Constructive
Destructive
Polarization
Plane polarized light
Dichroism
Polarization by reflection
Polarization by refraction
Interference patterns
Scattering


Entropy


Terms

conservation of energy
conservation of momentum
diffraction
diffusion
external costs
fission
fusion
heat engine
heat flow
heat pump
infrared
internal costs
irreversible
kinetic
LLE
ozone
penetration depth
phase change
photon
productivity
refrigerator
regulatory ratcheting
regulatory turbulence
reversible
ultraviolet
work
X-rays