Boron

  • Atomic Number: 5
  • Atomic Symbol: B
  • Atomic Mass: 10.811
  • Phase: soild
  • Type: metalloid
  • Electron Configuration: 1s²2s²2p¹
  • Group: 13
  • Period: 2
  • Melting Point: 2349 K (2076 °C, 3769 °F)
  • Boiling Point: 4200 K (3927 °C, 7101 °F)
  • Atomic Radii: 85 pm
  • Ionization Energy: 801 kj/mol
  • Electron Affinity: -27.7 kj/mol
  • Electronegativity: 2.0
  • Discovery: Boron was discovered by French chemists Joseph-Louis Gay-Lussac and Louis-Jaques Thénard and by English chemist Sir Humphry Davy in 1808.
  • Physical Description: It is a yellow-brown non-metallic crystal. At room temperature, boron is a poor conductor of electricity.
  • Location: Boron is not found as a free element on Earth. It can however be found combined with oxygen in borates.
  • Uses: Boron is used in pyrotechnics and flares to produce a green color. Boron has been used in some rockets as an ignition source. In the United States, glass and ceramics production is used by 70% of the boron. Boron (sodium perborate) can be found in laundry detergents, cleaning products, and laundry bleaches.
  • Isotopes: Natural boron is about 20% 10 boron and 80% 11 boron.
    • 10 boron is good at capturing neutrons. 10 boron is also known as enriched boron. It is used in radiation shielding and in boron neutron capture therapy.
    • 11 boron is used for fusion so that alpha particles can be turned directly into electric power.
  • Diagram:
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